[Originally posted Mar 16, 2012 10:25 AM by Antti Uitto [ updated Mar 16, 2012 11:11 AM ]]
You will find 1001 of these articles in the Internet. Here are my notes on the topic.
There are also several transition mechanisms available to enable communication between hosts that use different protocol versions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6_transition_mechanisms
At current time (march 2012) all modern operating systems support IPv6 and network gear is ready to handle the new protocol. Major deployment of the next generation protocol still lingers on slowly because there are hardly any serious end-user benfits to it. Efforts have been made to further advance the usage of IPv6 in the Internet: World IPv6 day was an event 8.6.2011 where major Internet players enabled IPv6 in their services for one day in order to test the access and find out possible problems that large scale IPv6 deployment could bring about.
6.6.2012 will be a World IPv6 launch in which these same players will enable IPv6 permanently and others are encouraged to join in.
- Huge address space of 128 bits
- Inbuilt support for IPSEC
- Stateless autoconfiguration, ease of management
- Simplified routing
- New applications and innovation due to the flexibility and capabilities of IPv6
Here’s how and IPv4 address looks like:
And this one’s IPv6:
It can be compressed to 2a00:1450:4016:800::1011 by omitting leading zeros in group and replacing groups of zero values with two consecutive colons.
IPv6 traffic can be unicast, multicast or anycast.
- Unicast – one-to-one
- Multicast – one-to-many (to all interfaces that have joined the corresponding multicast group)
- Anycast – one-to-closest (to topologically nearest node in a group of potential receivers all identified by the same destination address)
Global Unicast address (2000::/3)
The addresses routed in the Internet.
Unique local address (fc00::/7)
Addresses that can be routed only in organizations own network,
just like RFC1918 private addresses in IPv4.
Can not be routed in the Internet.
Link-local address (FE80::/10)
Non-routable addresses used for communication over a local link (L2).
Used by autoconfiguration mechanisms (Neighbor Discovery, Stateless Address Autoconfiguration)
IPv6 requires a link-local address.
::/0 – Default route
::/128 – Unspecified address. Used only by software before learning appropriate source address for the connection.
::1/128 – Localhost, local loopback
Globally routable IPv6 addresses are allocated
- /32 Internet Service Provider
- /48 Organization
- /64 Site
* See sources at the bottom of the page for more information on IPv6 address formats, classes and types.
sipcalc (Ubuntu installation: apt-get install sipcalc)
ipv6calc (Ubuntu installation: apt-get install ipv6calc)
Carla Schroder: Linux Networking Cookbook